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Literary structure (chiasmus, chiasm) of Book of Maccabees 1

Chiasmus and Concentric Structure of whole text


1 Reign of Antiochus (1:1-64)
  2 Mattathias and his Sons (2:1-70)
    3 Judah became the leader (3:1-4:35)
      4 Purification of the sanctuary (4:36-61)
        5 Unification of Israel (5:1-68)
          6 Wars against Antiochus and Demetrius (6:1-7:50)
            7 Alliance with Rome (8:1-32)
              8 The revenge of Judas's death (9:1-73)
                9 Jonathan became the high priest (10:1-89)
              10 Establishment of the position of Jonathan (11:1-74)
            11 Alliance with Rome (12:1-23)
          12 Jonathan was defeated (12:24-53)
        13 Death of Jonathan (13:1-42)
      14 Simon became the leader (13:43-14:15)
    15 The monument (14:16-49)
  16 The wars of Antiochus and Trypho (15:1-41)
17 Death of Simon (16:1-24)
Former halfRelationLatter half
1 Reign of Antiochus (1:1-64)
1:18 to make war on Ptolemy, king of Egypt. Ptolemy was frightened at his presence and fled, leaving many casualties. (1:18)
Wars of Ptolemy17 Death of Simon (16:1-24)
16:16 Then, when Simon and his sons had drunk freely, Ptolemy and his men sprang up, weapons in hand, rushed upon Simon in the banquet hall, and killed him, his two sons, and some of his servants. (16:16)
2 Mattathias and his Sons (2:1-70)
2:65 "Here is your brother Simeon who I know is a wise man; listen to him always, and he will be a father to you. (2:65)
Simon as a leader16 The wars of Antiochus and Trypho (15:1-41)
15:1 Antiochus, son of King Demetrius, sent a letter from the islands of the sea to Simon, the priest and ethnarch of the Jews, and to all the nation,(15:1)
3 Judah became the leader (3:1-4:35)
3:2 All his brothers and all who had joined his father supported him, and they carried on Israel's war joyfully. (3:2)
The brothers fight for Israel15 The monument (14:16-49)
14:26 He and his brothers and his father's house have stood firm and repulsed Israel's enemies. They have thus preserved its liberty." So they made an inscription on bronze tablets, which they affixed to pillars on Mount Zion.(14:26)
4 Purification of the sanctuary (4:36-61)
4:36 Then Judas and his brothers said, "Now that our enemies have been crushed, let us go up to purify the sanctuary and rededicate it."(4:36)
Restoration of the sanctuary14 Simon became the leader (13:43-14:15)
14:15 He made the temple splendid and enriched its equipment. (14:15)
5 Unification of Israel (5:1-68)
5:2 So they decided to destroy the descendants of Jacob who were among them, and they began to massacre and persecute the people. (5:2)
Genocide by Gentiles13 Death of Jonathan (13:1-42)
13:6 Rather will I avenge my nation and the sanctuary, as well as your wives and children, for all the nations out of hatred have united to destroy us. (13:6)
6 Wars against Antiochus and Demetrius (6:1-7:50)
7:29 So he came to Judas, and they greeted one another peaceably. But Judas' enemies were prepared to seize him. (7:29)
Ploy of the enemy12 Jonathan was defeated (12:24-53)
12:48 Then as soon as Jonathan had entered Ptolemais, the men of the city closed the gates and seized him; all who had entered with him, they killed with the sword. (12:48)
7 Alliance with Rome (8:1-32)
8:17 So Judas chose Eupolemus, son of John, son of Accos, and Jason, son of Eleazar, and sent them to Rome to establish an alliance of friendship with them.(8:17)
Alliance with Rome11 Alliance with Rome (12:1-23)
12:1 When Jonathan saw that the times favored him, he sent selected men to Rome to confirm and renew his friendship with the Romans. (12:1)
8 The revenge of Judas's death (9:1-73)
9:31 From that moment Jonathan accepted the leadership, and took the place of Judas his brother. (9:31)
Jonathan became the leader10 Establishment of the position of Jonathan (11:1-74)
11:27 He confirmed him in the high priesthood and in all the honors he had previously held, and had him enrolled among his Chief Friends. (11:27)

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

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Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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