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Literary structure (chiasm, chiasmus) of the Bible


What is literary structure?
How to analyze literary structure?
Explanation about Parallel Literary Structure (Revised presentation slide at Society of Biblical Literature 2010)
Frequently Asked Questions

Literary structures between the books of the Bible

Literary structure between Gospel of John and Revelation (Updated 2019/6/9)
     A Neglected Key to John's Revelation?: Previous research about relationship between Gospel of John and Revelation
Literary structure between Gospel of Luke and Acts (Updated 2016/6/29)

Regular parallel literary structure composed of chiastic and concentric structure

Old TestamentNew TestamentApocrypha
Book of Genesis (Updated 2019/11/10)
Book of Exodus (Updated 2020/2/4)
Book of Leviticus (Updated 2019/4/17)
Book of Numbers (Updated 2020/4/7)
Book of Deuteronomy (Updated 2020/4/7)
Book of Joshua (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Judges (Updated 2019/7/10)
Book of Ruth (Updated 2018/10/24)
Books of Samuel (Updated 2019/9/10)
Books of Kings (Updated 2019/9/10)
Books of Chronicles (Updated 2019/2/21)
Book of Ezra and Nehemiah (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Esther (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Job (Updated 2018/10/4)
Psalms (Updated 2019/6/13)
Book of Proverbs (Updated 2019/9/10)
Ecclesiastes (Updated 2018/10/5)
Song of Songs (Updated 2018/9/3)
Book of Isaiah (Updated 2019/7/10)
Book of Jeremiah (Updated 2018/12/5)
Book of Lamentations (Updated 2015/3/28)
Book of Ezekiel (Updated 2015/8/28)
Book of Daniel (Updated 2015/3/29)
Book of Hosea (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Joel (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Amos (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Obadiah (Updated 2015/9/25)
Book of Jonah (Updated 2015/3/29)
Book of Micah (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Nahum (Updated 2015/3/30)
Book of Habakkuk (Updated 2019/11/10)
Book of Zephaniah (Updated 2015/3/31)
Book of Haggai (Updated 2015/3/31)
Book of Zechariah (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Malachi (Updated 2018/12/12)
Gospel of Matthew (Updated 2019/11/10)
Gospel of Mark (Updated 2020/2/4)
Gospel of Luke (Updated 2019/9/10)
Gospel of John (Updated 2020/2/4)
Acts of the Apostles (Updated 2016/6/28)
Epistle to the Romans (Updated 2018/9/4)
First Epistle to the Corinthians (Updated 2018/8/31)
Second Epistle to the Corinthians (Updated 2015/10/2)
Epistle to the Galatians (Updated 2018/8/31)
Epistle to the Ephesians (Updated 2018/8/31)
Epistle to the Philippians (Updated 2014/8/24)
Epistle to the Colossians (Updated 2015/10/3)
First Epistle to the Thessalonians (Updated 2014/8/25)
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians (Updated 2014/8/25)
First Epistle to Timothy (Updated 2015/9/29)
Second Epistle to Timothy (Updated 2014/8/25)
Epistle to Titus (Updated 2014/8/25)
Epistle to Philemon (Updated 2018/2/1)
Epistle to the Hebrews (Updated 2014/8/25)
Epistle of James (Updated 2018/10/5)
First Epistle of Peter (Updated 2014/8/26)
Second Epistle of Peter (Updated 2014/8/26)
First Epistle of John (Updated 2015/10/5)
Second Epistle of John (Updated 2015/9/29)
Third Epistle of John (Updated 2014/8/26)
Epistle of Jude (Updated 2018/11/25)
Book of Revelation (Updated 2018/11/7)
Book of Tobit (Updated 2015/4/20)
Book of Judith (Updated 2015/4/20)
Book of Esther in Greek (Updated 2015/4/21)
Book of Maccabees 1 (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Maccabees 2 (Updated 2015/5/1)
Book of Widsom (Updated 2015/4/22)
Book of Sirach (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Baruch (Updated 2015/4/26)
Letter of Jeremiah (Updated 2015/4/26)
Book of Ezra in Greek (Updated 2015/5/1)
Book of Ezra in Latin (Updated 2015/4/28)
Prayer of Manasseh (Updated 2015/4/28)

Structure correction (2019/6/3)

Structure of John has been corrected to the structure composed of 81 pericopes.
There was statistical significance within older structure which was composed of 49 pericopes, but that would be imcomplete partial subset of the structure composed of 81 pericopes

Patterns Of Life -Study Bible-

Aaron Bishop has made Study Bible version of literary structure of the Bible.Thank you very much.

Ukrainian version

Yuriy Lishchinski has made Ukrainian version of literary structures
Thank you very much.


Many people have sent useful comments and detailed bug reports.
I would like to express my appreciation especially to:
Aaron Bishop,
Bert Falls,
Tim Varner,
Yuriy Lishchinski.

I also would like to express appereciation with gratitude and respect to my teacher, Katsuko Tsumuraya.

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

Creative Commons License
Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Caution: The copyright of the cited Bible verses belongs to each translator and publisher.