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Literary structure (chiasm, chiasmus) of the Bible


What is literary structure?
How to analyze literary structure?
Explanation about Parallel Literary Structure (Revised presentation slide at Society of Biblical Literature 2010)
Frequently Asked Questions

Literary structures between the books of the Bible

Literary structure between twelve Minor Prophets (Updated 2022/03/30)
Literary structure between Exodus and Numbers (Updated 2022/02/24)
Literary structure between Gospel of John and Revelation (Updated 2019/6/9)
     A Neglected Key to John's Revelation?: Previous research about relationship between Gospel of John and Revelation
Literary structure between Gospel of Luke and Acts (Updated 2016/6/29)


List of pericopes in Excel file format (Old Testament) (Updated 2022/02/24)
List of pericopes in Excel file format (New Testament) (Updated 2022/02/24)
Structures of pericopes in Excel file format (Old Testament) (Updated 2022/02/24)
Structures of pericopes in Excel file format (New Testament) (Updated 2022/02/24)

Regular parallel literary structure composed of chiastic and concentric structure

Old TestamentNew TestamentApocrypha
Book of Genesis (Updated 2023/11/29)
Book of Exodus (Updated 2022/10/3)
Book of Leviticus (Updated 2022/4/12)
Book of Numbers (Updated 2022/4/12)
Book of Deuteronomy (Updated 2021/6/16)
Book of Joshua (Updated 2022/4/16)
Book of Judges (Updated 2021/6/15)
Book of Ruth (Updated 2024/1/5)
Books of Samuel (Updated 2022/4/16)
Books of Kings (Updated 2022/4/12)
Books of Chronicles (Updated 2023/3/14)
Book of Ezra and Nehemiah (Updated 2022/4/13)
Book of Esther (Updated 2022/4/16)
Book of Job (Updated 2023/2/28)
Psalms (Updated 2022/4/13)
Book of Proverbs (Updated 2021/6/16)
Ecclesiastes (Updated 2023/10/2)
Song of Songs (Updated 2021/11/1)
Book of Isaiah (Updated 2022/5/9)
Book of Jeremiah (Updated 2023/2/23)
Book of Lamentations (Updated 2015/3/28)
Book of Ezekiel (Updated 2022/4/13)
Book of Daniel (Updated 2022/12/6)
Book of Hosea (Updated 2022/4/4)
Book of Joel (Updated 2021/6/16)
Book of Amos (Updated 2022/4/16)
Book of Obadiah (Updated 2015/9/25)
Book of Jonah (Updated 2015/3/29)
Book of Micah (Updated 2022/4/13)
Book of Nahum (Updated 2021/6/16)
Book of Habakkuk (Updated 2019/11/10)
Book of Zephaniah (Updated 2021/6/16)
Book of Haggai (Updated 2021/6/16)
Book of Zechariah (Updated 2022/4/13)
Book of Malachi (Updated 2018/12/12)
Gospel of Matthew (Updated 2023/6/28)
Gospel of Mark (Updated 2022/4/16)
Gospel of Luke (Updated 2022/4/16)
Gospel of John (Updated 2022/4/16)
Acts of the Apostles (Updated 2022/4/16)
Epistle to the Romans (Updated 2022/4/13)
First Epistle to the Corinthians (Updated 2022/4/16)
Second Epistle to the Corinthians (Updated 2022/4/13)
Epistle to the Galatians (Updated 2022/4/16)
Epistle to the Ephesians (Updated 2021/6/17)
Epistle to the Philippians (Updated 2014/8/24)
Epistle to the Colossians (Updated 2022/4/16)
First Epistle to the Thessalonians (Updated 2022/4/16)
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians (Updated 2014/8/25)
First Epistle to Timothy (Updated 2015/9/29)
Second Epistle to Timothy (Updated 2021/6/17)
Epistle to Titus (Updated 2014/8/25)
Epistle to Philemon (Updated 2022/4/13)
Epistle to the Hebrews (Updated 2022/4/16)
Epistle of James (Updated 2018/10/5)
First Epistle of Peter (Updated 2014/8/26)
Second Epistle of Peter (Updated 2022/4/16)
First Epistle of John (Updated 2021/6/17)
Second Epistle of John (Updated 2015/9/29)
Third Epistle of John (Updated 2014/8/26)
Epistle of Jude (Updated 2018/11/25)
Book of Revelation (Updated 2023/10/23)
Book of Tobit (Updated 2022/4/13)
Book of Judith (Updated 2015/4/20)
Book of Esther in Greek (Updated 2015/4/21)
Book of Maccabees 1 (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Maccabees 2 (Updated 2015/5/1)
Book of Widsom (Updated 2015/4/22)
Book of Sirach (Updated 2018/8/31)
Book of Baruch (Updated 2015/4/26)
Letter of Jeremiah (Updated 2015/4/26)
Book of Ezra in Greek (Updated 2022/4/13)
Book of Ezra in Latin (Updated 2022/4/13)
Prayer of Manasseh (Updated 2015/4/28)

Comments forms are added (July. 15, 2022)

Comments forms are added at the bottom of each page. Please use it if you want to share your interpretations or considerations.

License changed (Jan. 24, 2021)

The license of the literary structure data was changed to the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
If you clarify the source, you can use those data for free, even for commercial use.

Structure correction (June 3, 2019)

Structure of John has been corrected to the structure composed of 81 pericopes.
There was statistical significance within older structure which was composed of 49 pericopes, but that would be imcomplete partial subset of the structure composed of 81 pericopes

Patterns Of Life -Study Bible-

Aaron Bishop has made Study Bible version of literary structure of the Bible.Thank you very much.

Ukrainian version

Yuriy Lishchinski has made Ukrainian version of literary structures
Thank you very much.


Many people have sent useful comments and detailed bug reports.
I would like to express my appreciation especially to:
Aaron Bishop,
Bert Falls,
John Warren,
Saige Losli,
Tim Varner,
Yuriy Lishchinski.

I also would like to express appereciation with gratitude and respect to my teacher, Katsuko Tsumuraya.

Citations of the Bible are from New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version and New Jerusalem Bible.

Creative Commons License
Literary Structure of the Bible by Hajime Murai is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Caution: The copyright of the cited Bible verses belongs to each translator and publisher.